World Figure Biography: Rosa Parks, Against Racial Segregation
Biography: Rosa Parks
In the past, part of his territory in the United States still applied racial segregation rules, namely the separation of facilities and services based on race. Discrimination between citizens with colored skin with white communities includes when riding public transportation.
For example on a bus, white people will sit in the front row, while African-Americans must sit in the back. Until one day, a woman in Alabama refused to sit in the back of a bus seat.
Right on December 1, 1955, he was imprisoned for his actions. However, the story of Rosa Parks became the beginning of the discrimination resistance movement in the US in the modern world. Early life Rosa Louise McCauley was born in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4, 1913.
He moved along with his parents, James and Leona McCauley, to Pine Level, Alabama, at the age of two. His sister named Sylvester was born in 1915. Shortly after, Rosa had to accept the fact that his parents separated.
Biography Rosa Parks
Rosa’s childhood brought him to his initial experience with racial discrimination and activism for equality. While attending Pine Level, he often lacked adequate school facilities, such as desks. African-American students from grade 1 to 6 elementary school are also forced to walk.
Buses and new school buildings are only provided for white students. His mother is a teacher, and his extended family is indeed well educated. Rosa then moved to Montgomery, Alabama at the age of 11. There, he studied at the Montgomery Industrial School for Girls, a private school.
Rosa then went to Alabama State Teacher’s College High School. But, he did not graduate because he had to take care of his sick grandmother and mother. He never returned to school and got a job at a clothing factory in Montgomery.
Marriage In 1932, precisely at the age of 19, Rosa met and married Raymond Parks, a barber and active member of the National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The husband tries to support him until finally, he obtained a secondary school degree at the end of 1933. ( Biography Rosa Parks )
After that, he became actively involved in mass civil rights by joining the NAACP in 1942. The December 1, 1955 event, 42-year-old Rosa Parks always went back and forth to work as a tailor at the Montgomerie Fair shopping center by bus.
At that time, the law of segregation was still valid, where the front of the bus was reserved for white people and the rear seats were reserved for black people. On Thursday, December 1, 1955, when the bus Rosa was traveling on was continuing, white passengers continued to arrive.
The bus was full and the driver saw several white passengers standing in the hallway. He stopped the bus and moved the sign separating the two parts, then asked four black passengers to give up their seats. There are no special rules that require the driver to demand that the passenger give a seat to anyone regardless of skin color.
However, the Montgomery bus driver has adopted the habit of using marks to separate passengers based on skin color. If necessary, the driver will even ask the surrender passenger to hand the seat to the white passenger. If refused, the authorities will intervene. Return to the story of Rosa.
Three black passengers were willing to get out of their seats, but not Rosa. He refused and remained seated. “Why aren’t you standing up?” the driver asked. “I don’t think I have to stand up,” he said. The driver called the police and arrested Rosa, then placed him in custody.
There was widespread speculation that the woman was just physically exhausted so the incident occurred. “People say I didn’t hand over because I was tired,” he wrote in his autobiography, “But that is not true. I am not physically tired.
The only thing I was tired of was giving up, “he added. The bus boycott was given the opportunity to contact one person by telephone. He chose to call his husband. However, news of his arrest had spread quickly. Local NAACP chairman ED Nixon immediately devised a plan to arrange Montgomery city bus boycott.
Advertisements were placed in various local newspapers and printed leaflets, distributed in citizen housing. The African-American community was asked not to use the city bus on Monday, December 5, 1955, which coincided with the holding of the trial for Rosa.
People are encouraged to stay at home or go home from work by taxi or on foot. With most African-American communities, not boarding buses, longer boycotts will succeed. They then formed the Montgomery Improvement Association, which chose Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. as the leader.
Rosa was found guilty of violating the law of segregation. He was given a suspended sentence with a fine of 10 US dollars plus 4 US dollars for court costs. While the boycott caused outrage in most of Montgomery’s white population to violence. Nixon and King’s house was bombed.
However, violence did not prevent the boycott, until finally, the national and international press highlighted it. The bus boycott was a big success which lasted 381 days. The city bus is empty, many people drive cars and others take taxis operated by African Americans.
(Biography Rosa Parks – ) About 40,000 African-Americans who use the train every day, choose to go to work on foot. Dozens of city buses are unemployed, thus crippling the company’s finances. On November 13, 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that the application of the law of segregation on buses was unconstitutional. Boycott officially ended on December 20, 1956.
The tireless determination of the African-American community made the bus boycott in Montgomery become one of the largest and most successful mass movements against racial segregation in history. Parks, who lost his job and suffered abuse, is known to be a mother and a civil rights movement. Moving from Montgomery to Rosa’s life after the boycott was still not easy.
She lost her job and her husband was fired. Not finding a job in Montgomery, both with Rosa’s mother moved to Detroit Michigan. He started a new life, worked as a secretary and receptionist for the US Congress office John Conyer. He also served on the board of the American Federation of Family Planning. Rosa lost her husband, sister, and mother in two years from 1977-1979, all died of cancer.
Together with his old friend, Elaine Eason Steele, Rosa established the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development in 1987 to introduce young people to civil rights. Risa was awarded the Congressional Honorary Charter in 1999. The award was the highest honor of the US to civilians. The death of Rosa Parks died at the age of 92, October 24, 2005, in her apartment in Detroit. In the previous year, he was diagnosed with progressive dementia.
His death was marked by several memorial ceremonies, including at the Capitol Rotunda in Washington DC. Parks is buried near her husband and mother at Woodlawn Cemetery, Detroit. He became the first woman in US history to be buried in the US Capitol.