Chester Carlson Biography – Inventor of the Photocopier
Chester Flood Carlson was the Inventor of the Photocopier born on February 8, 1906, in Seattle, Washington, United States. His father had tuberculosis which made him have to work hard to get medical expenses. At the age of 17, his mother died and four years after his mother died Carlson’s father followed. This did not discourage Carlson from learning. He was able to complete his education until college, namely at the California Institute of Technology.
after completing his studies, Carlson later worked at an electronics manufacturer. Chester Carlson began his work as a copy of patent documents in a patent analysis company, Carlson thought to speed up his work by creating a tool that could print documents repeatedly. He also read various references for printing machines. Finally, he discovered the concept of electrophotography, which we now know as a photocopy machine.
In 1938, Chester Carlson made a small experiment utilizing soot powder (carbon) and irradiating light and moving writing from a medium to another medium. He also uses a concept called photo-conductivity, a process of changing electrons when exposed to light. In essence, with this process, the image can be duplicated by the electron change process. Most of the literature says Carlson’s findings created a copying process using electrostatic energy, namely xenography.
Biography of Chester Carlson
The xenography name comes from Greek, radical xeros (dry) and graphics (writing). Because, in the process, it does not involve chemical liquids, unlike previous technologies. Through this technique, Chester Carlson has found a way to overhaul the author’s paradigm of repeating a document, which will later become a process called photocopy. This technique was later patented on October 6, 1942.
For several years, Chester Carlson tried to perfect his findings. Although it is very useful, this electrophotography machine is not attractive to many people, because the machine is considered not to have a promising future. Chester who succeeded in making the tool had to sell the concept for years so that the copier could be sold on the market.
Large companies such as Kodak that sold equipment and the process of shooting, IBM and General Electric, rejected the findings. After almost despairing, Chester got the first partner of the Battelle Memorial Institute who was willing to capitalize on funds and effort and then together convinced Haloid, a medium-sized company of Haloid Corporation, New York that sold photo paper to become its partner to develop its findings. the first photocopy machine is electrophotography because it is considered to have no selling value, then the name Xerography is proposed. Xerography became commercial after being adopted by Xerox Corporation.
Xerox copy machine
One of Xerox’s initial products was Xerox 914, the first automatic coffee photo machine to use the xerography process. It was named Xerox 914 to refer to the ability of the machine to copy paper measuring 9 inches x 14 inches (229 mm x 356 mm). Xerox 914, which can copy up to 100 thousand papers per month, is very popular with the public at that time. This product contributes to the company’s revenue of up to 60 million US dollars. That success made the company decide to change its name from Haloid to Xerox in 1958. Until now Xerox is the world’s leading photocopy and printer machine company.
The product produced by the company, now headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut, USA, in 2006 managed to record revenues of 15.9 billion US dollars. The number of employees reaches 53,700 people, spread throughout the world. Chester Carlson died on September 9, 1968, in Rochester, New York, because of chronic liver disease. Thanks to his findings through a photocopy machine, Chester Carlson has found a way to overhaul the author’s paradigm of repeating a document. Until now, this process could hardly be abandoned in modern life. With Chester Carlson’s discovery, we are now easy, cheap and fast to duplicate a document