Biography of Laszlo Bureau – Inventor of Ballpoint
His full name is László József Bíró or Ladislao Jose Bureau, also called Laszlo Biro, born September 29, 1899. He is the inventor of modern ballpoint pens. The production of his first pen was displayed at an international exhibition in Budapest, Hungary in 1931.
This creation was patented in Paris in 1938. The Bureau noticed that the ink used in newspaper printing dries quickly and leaves no stains on the paper. Other difficulties when using a pen to correct manuscripts are written on thin paper such as widened ink, spilled or paper that is torn due to the sharp sharpness of the pen.
Together with his brother George, a chemist, he developed a new pen tip which was cast away from a ball that could rotate freely in a hole. When spinning, the ball will take ink from a cartridge, the ink soaks a small ball that flows capillary and with the help of gravity. and then roll to attach it to the paper.
Because of that little ball, the new pen is called the Ball Point Pen or commonly known as the pen/pen. This design was later patented in Argentina on June 10, 1943, and sold under the Birome brand, which still survives today. Initially, stationery using ink was a pen and ink that was used separately.
The pen used was originally made of goose feather as is commonly used in medieval Europe, reeds used in the Middle East or even brushes used in China and Japan. The disadvantage is that its use often troubles the wearer because the ink spills or even spills on paper.
Pens have internal spaces filled with ink attached. The ink is channeled through the tip when used by rolling a small ball (about 0.7 mm in diameter to 1 mm) of metal. The ink dries immediately after touching the paper. Unlike pens that use runny ink, pens use thick, sticky ink.
This is what causes it to not easily leak to the tip so that the ball becomes messy. In the 1960s began to be known as soft-pointed pens that we call markers. This is a new breakthrough because the pen’s eyes are made of porous plastic, the ink bags also contain fibrous synthetics. While the way it works like a sponge saves water.
Given the advantages of each type of pen, the idea arises to combine it. The result is a rolling ball pen with a ball at the tip of a pen like a ballpoint pen, but using liquid ink stored safely in the pocket as in a pen or marker. When used, the tip of the pen will slide comfortably on the surface of the paper like using a pen or marker. Laszlo Bureau died November 24, 1985, at the age of 86 years.
Development of Ballpoint / Pens from time to time
Initially, the pen or pen is one of the current stationery. It is not easy to determine when humans know the pen. There is a suspicion that says that humans first used sharpened iron) which is often used to write and draw on stones or metal slabs and is the first generation of pens.
That said, it was only in 1,000 BC that a stationery revolution occurred when China used a hairbrush as stationery. The brush uses dry ink from soot or charcoal which uses it like watercolors. Around 400 BC, a “pen” was made from a reed stem to write on papyrus paper. These types of pens can be found in Egypt and Armenia, while Cairo and Alexandria are well-known as the main markets for these items.
Even now there are still many people along the coast of the Persian Gulf who collect reeds stems for this purpose, while marketing spreads to parts of the East. Reportedly, the pen best matches the ink and paper used there. The reeds that are chosen are usually very small but strong. After being cut, the reeds are stored specifically, for example, stored under a pile of manure for several months.
As a result, besides turning black mixed with yellow, the stems will get harder with a smoother surface. As paper quality develops, it demands a finer pen. Goose feathers are an option. If referring to the figure written by St. Isidore of Seville, a new quill appeared in the VII century. Although many suspect the feather pen had been there earlier.
After sorting according to the length and thickness, wing feathers are buried in hot sand so the outer skin is dry. This process makes the hair easy to clean and the inside shrinks and exfoliates. Then the soft hair is hardened by dipping it into a boiling solution containing alum or nitric acid. In the final stage, the tip of the pen is split and shaped to make it comfortable to wear.
Goose feather pens have an important role at that time. Steel pens were discovered in 1820, and gradually took over the task of goose feathers. The shape also varies from round, pointed, and chiseled. Now we only use pens produced from the factory, ready to use for all purposes.
In 1828, people began to recognize the steel pen introduced by John Mitchell from Birmingham England. For about 7.5 liters of rice now. Unfortunately, at that time people felt uncomfortable wearing it if every time the steel pen had to be dipped in ink.
In 1884, an ink-bearing pen emerged with the principle of capillary pipework, one of which was made by an American, Lewis Edson Waterman. This pen created by Waterman has indeed made its own revolution in the field of writing.
Because humans no longer need to dip their pens into the ink after repeatedly writing a few words. Waterman had used a plate wrapped in golden iridium on the eye of the pen. He is also the first person to put a clip on the pen cover.
The next pen model is a pen that relies on a metal ball at the tip of the pen that will continue to be submerged in ink liquid from the ink bag. Then the pen has a lid or mechanical button that prevents ink from drying out at the tip.
Various models and shapes, many made at that time. However, the most satisfying model is the work of Lazlo Bureau. Pens were once very popular in England, especially during World War II (1939-1940), which at that time was favored by many fighter pilots because they did not leak when carried flying